**Four Pioneering Institutions**

Four institutions that specifically work for the training and research in Mohini Attam deserve mention. They are the Kerala Kala Mandalam, the Nalanda Institute, the Natana Kaisiki at the Ammannur Chakyar Madhom, Irinjalakuda and Kalamandalam, Calcutta. **Kerala Kala Mandalam** Kerala Kala Mandalam, now a Deemed University, was started in 1930 by the poet Vallathol Narayana Menon, with the invaluable support of Kakkad Karanavappad, an eminent scholar and Manakkulam Mukunda Raja, a devoted cultural activist, in a small village, Cheruthuruthy, on the banks of the river Bharatapuzha, in the northern fringe of Thrissur District. The birth of Kala Mandalam marked the first institutional step in the cultural history of Kerala to start training in classical performing arts, who were so far left to the patronage of provincial landlords.

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