# Classical Properties of Matter - Gravitation

This book is intended for being used as a textbook or reference book at the level of first-year graduation-level Physics or engineering. The objective is to provide a set of comprehensive materials that would help the student to grasp the concepts. The prerequisite for this book is pre-university Mathematics and Physics.

#### Table Of Contents

1

##### Newtonâ€™s Law of Universal Gravitation

Every particle of matter in the universe attracts every other particle with a force which is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of their distance apart.

Last updated on: Aug 7, 2021

2

##### Dimensional formula of G

The dimensional formula of G is given and expressed interms of various unit systems.

Last updated on: Aug 13, 2021

3

##### Gravitational Force

Gravitational force is a long-range force like electrostatic force and unlike nuclear force, but is the weakest force among them.

Last updated on: Aug 13, 2021

4

##### Gravitational Field

Gravitational field of a body is the space around it within which its gravitational force of attraction is perceptible. Gravitational intensity at a point in the field due to a body is the force experienced by a unit mass at that point.

Last updated on: Aug 13, 2021

5

##### Gravitational Potential

The gravitational potential at a point in a gravitational field is defined as the work done against the field in bringing a unit mass from infinity to the point considered.

Last updated on: Aug 13, 2021

6

##### Definition

The gravitational potential at a point in the gravitational field due to a body can also be defined as the potential energy of an unit mass placed at that point. The highest value of the potential (gravitational) is zero at infinity.

Last updated on: Aug 13, 2021

7

##### Equipotential Surface

Equipotential surface is the surface at every point on which the gravitational potential has the same value. This means that no work is done in moving a unit mass or any mass along the equipotential surface.

Last updated on: Aug 13, 2021

8

##### Relation between Gravitational Intensity and Potential

Gravitational intensity is the negative potential gradient (Potential gradient is the negative of the space rate of change of gravitational potential.).

Last updated on: Aug 13, 2021

9

##### Gravitational Potential due to Spherical Shell of Matter

Suppose P is a particle having unit mass, outside the spherical shell of radius r. Let, A = distance between the particle P and the centre of the spherical shell = OP.

Last updated on: Aug 13, 2021

10

##### Gravitational Field due to Spherical Shell of Matter

Gravitational field inside a spherical shell of matter is 0. On outside and on the surface of the shell it is inversely proportional to the distance.

Last updated on: Aug 13, 2021